Space exploration missions can have deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. Conversely, astronauts on long-duration missions who have pre-existing, but undetected, cardiovascular disease are at risk for life- and mission-threatening complications when they are far from medical help. The Cardiovascular Alterations Team is determining the effect of long-duration spaceflight on the heart and blood vessels and researching ways to reduce the risks and improve pre-flight detection and management of cardiovascular diseases. The Team works closely with colleagues in flight medicine at NASA Johnson Space Center to develop screening programs for astronauts and to limit the risk of developing cardiovascular events during a long-duration mission.
The Team has a number of active areas of research, which include quantifying the risk of coronary events associated with changes in coronary artery calcium scores and determining whether high levels of fitness or use of cholesterol-lowering medication can influence this risk. Researchers are especially concerned about whether space radiation affects endothelial cells, the lining of blood vessels, which might initiate or accelerate coronary heart disease. They are simultaneously examining the efficacy of countermeasures, such as strong anti-oxidants, to ameliorate the effects of radiation exposure on the blood vessels.
The Team is also using novel ultrasound techniques to assess changes in cardiac size, shape and function over the course of prolonged spaceflight on the ISS. Because the heart seems to shrink and reduce its ability to fill completely in space, activities such as exercise or maintain temperature control may be compromised. Therefore, the Team also is determining whether spaceflight impairs temperature regulation in the body.
Benjamin D. Levine, M.D.
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
Associate Team Leader:
Jay C. Buckey, Jr, M.D.
Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth College
The Cardiovascular Alterations Team is focusing on countermeasures to ensure that potential changes in cardiovascular function do not interfere with crew performance or mission success.
The anticipated deliverables for spaceflight include:
The Cardiovascular Alternations Team’s work benefits health care on Earth in the following ways: