Most of the 350 NSBRI-funded projects over the past 19 years, particularly those to academic institutions, include scientists at a variety of career levels, including post-doctoral fellows, graduate students, and undergraduate students. In addition, over 70 outstanding graduate students and fellows have completed NSBRI mentored training programs, with 80% of First Award (post-doctoral) recipients acquiring jobs related to human space exploration in academia, industry, and government. Fellowships are competitive and successful recipients are integrated into NSBRI’s science and technology research teams. Frequently, projects are initiated by or include clinical researchers, practicing clinicians, medical residents and medical students. In 2009, NSBRI created the Space Medicine Clinical Research Training Program (SMCRTP). Coordinating with NASA’s Chief Health and Medical Officer, the Institute implements this program to elevate space medicine residency training in a manner that is consistent with research opportunities offered by other American medical and surgical specialty programs.